NIOSH REL: 0.1 mg/m3 TWA
Current OSHA PEL: 0.1 mg/m3 TWA
1989 OSHA PEL: Same as current PEL
1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 0.02 ppm (0.1 mg/m3) TWA
Description of substance: White to yellow, soft, waxy solid with acrid fumes in air.
LEL :. . Unknown
Original (SCP) IDLH*: No Evidence [*Note: "Effective" IDLH = 200 mg/m3 -- see discussion below.]
Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: There is no evidence of an IDLH because, as ACGIH  stated, acute effects rarely result from inhalation of phosphorus vapor. ACGIH  also reported that rabbits survived daily 30minute exposures to 150 to 160 mg/m3 [Maruo 1955]. For this draft technical standard, therefore, respirators have been selected on the basis of the assigned protection factor afforded by each device up to 2,000 ´ the OSHA PEL of 0.1 mg/m3 (i.e., 200 mg/m3); only the "most protective" respirators are permitted for use in concentrations exceeding 200 mg/m3.
Short-term exposure guidelines: None developed
ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
Lethal dose data:
|Cheng-Chun et al. 1975|
Cheng-Chun et al. 1975
Other animal data: It has been reported that rabbits have survived daily 30minute exposures to 150 to 160 mg/m3 [Maruo 1955].
Human data: Death has reportedly resulted from a single
dose of 1 mg/kg [Smyth 1956]. Severe toxic symptoms have
been reported following a single oral dose of 15 mg [Sollmann
1943]. However, survival of ingestion up to 1.5 grams have
also been reported [Diza-Rivera et al. 1950; Newburger et al.
1948]. [Note: An oral dose of 15 mg is equivalent to a 70kg
worker being exposed to 10 mg/m3 for 30 minutes,
assuming a breathing rate of 50 liters per minute and 100%
|Revised IDLH: 5 mg/m3
Basis for revised IDLH: The revised IDLH for phosphorus (yellow) is 5 mg/m3 based on acute oral toxicity data in humans [Sollmann 1943] and animals [Cheng-Chun et al. 1975; Yakkyoku 1977].
1. ACGIH . Phosphorus (yellow). In: Documentation of the threshold limit values for substances in workroom air. 3rd ed. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, p. 210.
2. ChengChun L, Dilley JV, Hodgson JR, Helton DO, Wiagand WJ, Roberts DN, Anderson BS, Halfpap LM, Kurtz LD . Mammalian toxicity of munition compounds: phase I. Acute oral toxicity, primary skin and eye irritation, dermal sensitization and disposition and metabolism. Washington, DC: Headquarters, U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, Contract DMD1774C4073.
3. DiazRivera RS, Collazo PJ, Pons ER, Torregrosa MV . Acute phosphorus poisoning in man. A study of 56 cases. Medicine 29:269298.
4. Maruo T . Experimental study on poisoning due to gas of yellow phosphor. Part I. The hemogram of rabbits. Fukuoka Acta Medica 46:604615 (in Japanese).
5. Newburger RA, Beaser SB, Schwachman H . Phosphorus poisoning with recovery accompanied by electrocardiographic changes. Am J Med 4:927930.
6. Smyth HF Jr . Improved communication: hygienic standards for daily inhalation. Am Ind Hyg Assoc Q 17(2):129185.
7. Sollmann T . A manual of pharmacology and its applications to therapeutics and toxicology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders, pp. 884889.
8. Yakkyoku (Pharmacy) ; 28:329 (in Japanese).
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