The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances

Nicotine

RTECS #: QS5250000

CAS #: 54-11-5


UPDATE: May 2005 MW: 162.26 MF: C10H14N2


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. MUTATION DATA:
  3. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  4. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  5. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  6. REVIEWS:
  7. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  8. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  9. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  10. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. ( - ) - 3 - (1 - Methyl - 2 - pyrrolidyl) pyridine
  2. ( - ) - Nicotine
  3. (S) - 3 - (1 - Methyl - 2 - pyrrolidinyl) pyridine
  4. (S) - Nicotine
  5. 1 - Methyl - 2 - (3 - pyridyl) pyrrolidine
  6. 3 - (N - Methylpyrrolidino) pyridine
  7. Black leaf
  8. Destruxol orchid spray
  9. ENT 3,424
  10. Emo - nik
  11. Flux MAAG
  12. Fumetobac
  13. Habitrol
  14. L - 3 - (1 - Methyl - 2 - pyrrolidyl) pyridine
  15. L - Nicotine
  16. Mach - Nic
  17. Niagara P.A. dust
  18. Nico - dust
  19. Nico - fume
  20. Nicocide
  1. Nicorette gum
  2. Nicotina (Italian)
  3. Nicotine (ACGIH:OSHA)
  4. Nicotine alkaloid
  5. Nikotin (German)
  6. Nikotyna (Polish)
  7. Ortho N - 4 and N - 5 dusts
  8. Ortho N - 4 dust
  9. Ortho N - 5 dust
  10. Prostep
  11. Pyridine, 3 - (1 - methyl - 2 - pyrrolidinyl) -
  12. Pyridine, 3 - (1 - methyl - 2 - pyrrolidinyl) - , (S) - (9CI)
  13. Pyridine, 3 - (tetrahydro - 1 - methylpyrrol - 2 - yl)
  14. Pyrrolidine, 1 - methyl - 2 - (3 - pyridal) -
  15. RCRA waste number P075
  16. Tendust
  17. Tetrahydronicotyrine, dl -
  18. XL all insecticide
  19. beta - Pyridyl - alpha - N - methylpyrrolidine


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis hamster ovary 1 gm/L CALEDQ 54,89,1990
cytogenetic analysis human mammary gland 200 mol/L/24 hour EMMUEG 39,235,2002
dominant lethal test intraperitoneal
mouse
10 mg/kg/2 day- intermittent IRLCDZ 6,461,1978
DNA adduct intraperitoneal
mouse
18.2 g/kg FCTOD7 41,1045,2003
DNA inhibition human other cell types 4 mmol/L CALEDQ 33,91,1986
DNA inhibition rabbit other cell types 1 mmol/L TXCYAC 34,309,1985
mutation in microorganisms Saccharomyes cerevisiae 100 ppm (-enzymatic activation step) RSTUDV 6,161,1976
other mutation test systems human other cell types 4 mmol/L CALEDQ 33,91,1986
sister chromatid exchange hamster ovary 625 mg/L CALEDQ 54,89,1990


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
implant
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 26,250 g/kg (5-23 day pregnant/16 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
BPHAEL 10,699,1999
implant
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 125 mg/kg (6-12 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
ANANAU 168,109,1989
implant
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 125 mg/kg (6-12 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
ANANAU 172,257,1991
implant
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 125 mg/kg (6-12 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Respiratory system
ANANAU 172,257,1991
implant
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7 mg/kg (8-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) TOXID9 3,156,1983
implant
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 19,200 g/kg (14-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Germ cell effects (in offspring) TXCYAC 94,69,1994
intramuscular
domestic animal
lowest published toxic dose: 13 mg/kg (3-19 week pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Stillbirth
AJPEEK 9,270,1992
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 24 mg/kg (9-11 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
SCIEAS 127,877,1958
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kg (10 day pregnant) Reproductive: Maternal effects: Parturition

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
TJADAB 27,40A,1983
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kg (10 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain) TJADAB 27,40A,1983
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 42,500 g/kg (6-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects NETEEC 20,465,1998
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5,250 g/kg (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Skin and skin appendages

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
ACNSAX 15,148,1973
intravenous
domestic animal
lowest published toxic dose: 200 g/kg (16 week pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system AJOGAH 167,1624,1992
intravenous
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 500 g/kg (17 week pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus AJOGAH 111,1092,1971
multiple
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5,750 g/kg (7-21 day pregnant/8 day after birth) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Respiratory system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
BNEOBV 53,163,1988
multiple
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 37 mg/kg (7-22 day pregnant/21 day after birth) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Respiratory system SAMJAF 83,195,1993
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 16 mg/kg (7 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) TJADAB 14,252,1976
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 642 mg/kg (21 day prior to copulation/1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) TXAPA9 66,30,1982
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 16 mg/kg (7 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
SEIJBO 16,253,1976
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 24 mg/kg (7-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Skin and skin appendages
SEIJBO 18,167,1978
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 59,400 g/kg (1-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
PSEBAA 116,956,1964
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 594 mg/kg (4 week male/4 week prior to copulation-3 week after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral NETOD7 1,221,1979
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 22 mg/kg (20 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
NETEEC 9,95,1987
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 319 mg/kg (7-20 day pregnant/35 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic BRREAP 732,257,1996
oral
woman
lowest published toxic dose: 40 g/kg (24 week pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system BJOGAS 90,710,1983
parenteral
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 408 mg/kg (1-68 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral NTOTDY 4,365,1982
parenteral
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 408 mg/kg (1-68 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain) ANREAK 193,159,1979
parenteral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 126 mg/kg (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
AJOGAH 100,957,1968
parenteral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 126 mg/kg (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Maternal effects: Parturition

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Stillbirth

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4)
AJOGAH 110,522,1971
parenteral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 60 mg/kg (1-5 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility BIRSB5 20(Suppl 1),52A,1979
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kg (7 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
SCIEAS 127,877,1958
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kg (5 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth) SCIEAS 127,877,1958
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg (10-11 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
KAIZAN 39,212,1964
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg (9-18 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
BRBUDU 29,363,1992
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 102 mg/kg (4-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
DBRRDB 102,117,1997
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 8,800 g/kg (1-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical FATOAO 47(5),85,1984
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 33 mg/kg (1-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive) FATOAO 47(5),85,1984
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kg (7-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Maternal effects: Parturition

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
TJADAB 23,53A,1981
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 9 mg/kg (14-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Stillbirth BNEOBV 35,290,1979
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 32 mg/kg (1-8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) ENDKAC 69,359,1977
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 22,500 g/kg (21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Maternal effects: Postpartum

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
AJOGAH 95,515,1966
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 12 mg/kg (15-18 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
TJADAB 25(2),77A,1982
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 45 mg/kg (7-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
NETEEC 21,603,1999
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.4 mg/kg (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system
FATOAO 47,78,1984
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1.5 mg/kg (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
FATOAO 47,78,1984
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine system
FATOAO 47,78,1984
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1.5 mg/kg (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
FATOAO 47,85,1984
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system FATOAO 47,85,1984
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.4 mg/kg (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
FATOAO 47,85,1984
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 16 mg/kg (5-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
TOXID9 72,127,2003


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intraduodenal
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 30 mg/kg N/R ARZNAD 25,1037,1975
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.14 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests PSCHDL 174,334,2004
intramuscular
domestic bird
lowest published lethal dose: 8 mg/kg N/R PHZOA9 12,238,1939
intramuscular
cat
lowest published lethal dose: 9 mg/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Ataxia
SCIEAS 127,1054,1958
intramuscular
cattle
lowest published lethal dose: 9 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Ataxia
SCIEAS 127,1054,1958
intramuscular
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 7,700 g/kg N/R PSEBAA 29,1177,1932
intramuscular
guinea pig
lowest published lethal dose: 15 mg/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Ataxia
SCIEAS 127,1054,1958
intramuscular
horse, donkey
lowest published lethal dose: 8,800 g/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Ataxia
SCIEAS 127,1054,1958
intramuscular
horse, donkey
lowest published lethal dose: 8,800 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Ataxia
SCIEAS 127,1054,1958
intramuscular
monkey
lowest published lethal dose: 6 mg/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Ataxia
SCIEAS 127,1054,1958
intramuscular
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 17.8 g/kg Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests PSCHDL 175,225,2004
intramuscular
mouse
lowest published lethal dose: 8 mg/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Ataxia
SCIEAS 127,1054,1958
intramuscular
pigeon
lowest published lethal dose: 9 mg/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Ataxia
SCIEAS 127,1054,1958
intramuscular
pig
lowest published lethal dose: >14 mg/kg Behavioral: Hallucinations, distorted perceptions

Behavioral: Excitement

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)
SCIEAS 127,1054,1958
intramuscular
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 15 mg/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Ataxia
SCIEAS 127,1054,1958
intramuscular
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kg Behavioral: Analgesia EKFAE9 63,16,2000
intramuscular
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 30 mg/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Ataxia
SCIEAS 127,1054,1958
intraperitoneal
guinea pig
lowest published lethal dose: 15 mg/kg N/R JPETAB 50,93,1934
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5,900 g/kg N/R TXAPA9 28,227,1974
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 0.25 mg/kg Behavioral: Analgesia EURNE* 14,71,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 14,560 g/kg N/R JPETAB 124,350,1958
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 mg/kg Endocrine: Change in LH

Endocrine: Adrenal cortex hyperplasia

Endocrine: Other changes
PHMREP 35,181,1997
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4 mg/kg Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease FATOAO 44,40,1981
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kg Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes FATOAO 44,565,1981
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.3 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests EJPHAZ 474,227,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3 mg/kg Endocrine: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
LIFSAK 70,2915,2002
intraperitoneal
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 14 mg/kg N/R PSEBAA 58,231,1945
intraspinal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 0.65 mg/kg Behavioral: Analgesia JMCMAR 44,4039,2001
intraspinal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kg Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease JMCMAR 44,4039,2001
intraspinal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay) JMCMAR 44,4039,2001
intratracheal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 19,300 g/kg N/R ARDSBL 129,112,1984
intravenous
cat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,300 g/kg N/R PSEBAA 35,316,1936
intravenous
dog
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5 mg/kg N/R JPETAB 95,506,1949
intravenous
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 20 g/kg Autonomic Nervous System: Ganglion facilitant

Vascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
EJPHAZ 443,197,2002
intravenous
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4,500 g/kg N/R ARZNAD 11,1011,1961
intravenous
mammal (species unspecified)
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 8 mg/kg N/R 30ZDA9 -,406,1971
intravenous
man
lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 mg/kg Behavioral: Abuse

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
PSCHDL 175,134,2004
intravenous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 300 g/kg Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
BJPCBM 35,161,1969
intravenous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2,800 g/kg N/R NIIRDN -,916,1995
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 50 g/kg Brain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS NNAPBA 362,41,2000
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 8 mg/kg Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol) TOXID9 72,34,2003
intravenous
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 6,250 g/kg N/R PSEBAA 58,231,1945
oral
wild bird
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 17,800 g/kg N/R AECTCV 12,355,1983
oral
dog
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 9,200 g/kg N/R PSEBAA 29,1177,1932
oral
human
lowest published toxic dose: 0.57 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests PSCHDL 173,49,2004
oral
human
lowest published toxic dose: 85.7 g/kg Brain and Coverings: Changes in surface EEG NEROEW 24,671,2001
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3,340 g/kg Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Muscle contraction or spasticity

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
HYSAAV 34(4-6),187,1969
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 50 mg/kg N/R FMCHA2 -,C219,1991
parenteral
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 5,700 g/kg N/R PSEBAA 29,1177,1932
parenteral
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 34 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes JPETAB 48,317,1933
parenteral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 mg/kg Behavioral: Antianxiety PSCHDL 158,205,2001
rectal
human
lowest published toxic dose: 1,430 g/kg Behavioral: Hallucinations, distorted perceptions

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
CTOXAO 10,391,1977
subcutaneous
cat
lowest published lethal dose: 20 mg/kg N/R FDWU** -,-,1931
subcutaneous
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 20 mg/kg N/R FDWU** -,-,1931
subcutaneous
frog
lowest published lethal dose: 6 mg/kg N/R FDWU** -,-,1931
subcutaneous
guinea pig
lowest published lethal dose: 15 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Ataxia

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
JPETAB 48,95,1933
subcutaneous
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg Brain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS EJPHAZ 422,185,2001
subcutaneous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 16 mg/kg N/R AEPPAE 188,605,1938
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 8 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold EJPHAZ 466,99,2003
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1.6 mg/kg Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
PSCHDL 153,327,2001
subcutaneous
pigeon
lowest published lethal dose: 4,580 g/kg N/R FDWU** -,-,1931
subcutaneous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 23.5 mg/kg N/R HBPTO* 1,118,2001
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3.6 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay) LIFSAK 69,2583,2001
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 mg/kg Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine in striatum NNAPBA 362,444,2000
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 125 g/kg Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests TOXID9 72,74,2003
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.6 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine in striatum
PSCHDL 175,114,2004
subcutaneous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 5 mg/kg N/R FDWU** -,-,1931
skin
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 3 mg/kg/5 minute Cardiac: Pulse rate decreased with fall in BP

Vascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section
JTCTDW 39,135,2001
skin
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 5.3 mg/kg/5 minute Cardiac: Change in rate

Vascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section
CTOXAO 39,135,2001
skin
human
lowest published toxic dose: 0.7 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests PSCHDL 159,83,2001
skin
human
lowest published toxic dose: 0.42 mg/kg Behavioral: Muscle weakness NEROEW 27,684,2002
skin
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 140 mg/kg N/R WRPCA2 9,119,1970
skin
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 50 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
AFDOAQ 16,3,1952
unreported route
man
lowest published lethal dose: 882 g/kg N/R 85DCAI 2,73,1970
unreported route
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 260 g/kg N/R EPXXDW #0000106
unreported route
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 13 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold TOSCF2 72,289,2003


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
implant
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 28 mg/kg/28 day- continuous Endocrine: Other changes

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response
TXAPA9 135,268,1995
intraperitoneal
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 28 mg/kg/2 week- intermittent Vascular: Other changes JAPYAA 86,1126,1999
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 42 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Gastrointestinal: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
IJEBA6 13,360,1975
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg/10 day- intermittent Endocrine: Estrogenic PHMREP 35,181,1997
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3 mg/kg/10 day- intermittent Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests EJPHAZ 474,227,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 120 mg/kg/30 day- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
JOETD7 60,215,1998
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4.2 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes TOXID9 72,124,2003
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 14 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS TOXID9 72,124,2003
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 47.25 mg/kg/5 week- continuous Blood: Changes in spleen

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
JPETAB 302,935,2002
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 84 mg/kg/2 week- continuous Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain PSCHDL 157,45,2001
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 84 mg/kg/2 week- continuous Behavioral: Analgesia PSCHDL 157,45,2001
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 48 mg/kg/8 day- continuous Behavioral: Analgesia PSCHDL 157,45,2001
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 42 mg/kg/5 week- intermittent Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response JPETAB 302,935,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg/40 day- continuous Brain and Coverings: Changes in brain weight

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight
NYKZAU 86,35,1985
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 21 mg/kg/7 day- continuous Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Behavioral: Fluid intake
PANCR* 5,222,1990
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 336 mg/kg/16 week- continuous Endocrine: Hypoglycemia PANCR* 5,222,1990
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,568 mg/kg/16 week- continuous Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach

Endocrine: Other changes
PANCR* 5,222,1990
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 257.6 mg/kg/8 week- continuous Liver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Glycolytic
EJPHAZ 458,227,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 120 mg/kg/30 day- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct JOETD7 60,215,1998
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 56 mg/kg/8 week- continuous Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes NETEEC 25,329,2003
parenteral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 12.6 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Behavioral: Toxic psychosis

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
PSCHDL 153,315,2001
parenteral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 83.4 mg/kg/6 week- intermittent Vascular: Structural changes in vessels

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
EXMPA6 11,71,1969
subcutaneous
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 415 mg/kg/21 day- continuous Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Amino acids (including renal excretion)
TOLED5 31,23,1986
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5.6 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Endocrine: Hypoglycemia JPETAB 300,876,2002
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 8.4 mg/kg/21 day- intermittent Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of exocrine pancreas

Endocrine: Hypoglycemia

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
JPETAB 300,876,2002
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 36.4 mg/kg/13 week- intermittent Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of exocrine pancreas

Endocrine: Hypoglycemia

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
JPETAB 300,876,2002
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 22.4 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Catecholamine levels in CNS
PSCHDL 153,327,2001
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 12,600 g/kg/3 week- intermittent Cardiac: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases
TOLED5 116,61,2000
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.4 mg/kg/21 day- intermittent Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FATOAO 47,78,1984
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg/21 day- intermittent Cardiac: Other changes

Vascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
FATOAO 47,78,1984
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1.5 mg/kg/21 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea FATOAO 47,78,1984
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 875 g/kg/1 week- intermittent Behavioral: Tolerance

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
TOXID9 72,74,2003
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1.4 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning PSCHDL 168,216,2003
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
BJPCBM 138,1376,2003
skin
human
lowest published toxic dose: 2.8 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, allergic MFEPDX 11,223,1989
skin
human
lowest published toxic dose: 4.2 mg/kg/14 day- continuous Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests NEROEW 24,350,2001


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (skin) DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
EURNE* 12,287,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 559,11,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ADVPA3 4,263,1966
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
FNSCA6 2,67,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
NETEEC 24,3,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 127,207,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
LIFSAK 71,2807,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 488,151,2001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TPHSDY 23,130,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TPHSDY 23,78,2002


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATION FEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDES: Supported RBREV* -,194,1998
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (skin) DTLVS* 3,181,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (skin) CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (skin) CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (skin) CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (skin) CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - ARAB Republic of Egypt time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRIA MAK 0.07 ppm, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, Skin, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 1.5 mg/m3, Skin, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 0.5 mg/m3, Skin, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - GERMANY MAK 0.07 ppm (0.5 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 0.5 mg/m3, Skin, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 0.5 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 1.5 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 0.07 ppm (0.5 mg/m3), KZG- week 0.14 ppm, Skin, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THAILAND time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - TURKEY time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 1.5 mg/m3, Skin, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN, KOREA American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (skin)
Occupational Exposure Limit IN NEW ZEALAND, SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (skin)


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO NICOTINE-air 10 hour time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (Sk) NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 50570;
Number of Industries 3;
Total Number of Facilities 83;
Number of Occupations 4;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 161
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 50570;
Number of Industries 1;
Total Number of Facilities 43;
Number of Occupations 1;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 4,737;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 861


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: N crassa-aneuploidy; Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used as an agricultural chemical and pesticide, pharmaceutical, veterinary drug
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Nicotine, 2544


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

30ZDA9 "Chemistry of Pesticides," Melnikov, N.N., New York, Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., 1971
85DCAI "Poisoning; Toxicology, Symptoms, Treatments," 2nd ed., Arena, J.M., Springfield, IL, C.C. Thomas, 1970
ACNSAX Activitas Nervosa Superior. (Avicenum, Malostranske nam. 28, Prague 1, Czechoslovakia) V.1- 1959-
ADVPA3 Advances in Pharmacology. (New York, NY) V.1-6, 1962-68. For publisher information, see AVPCAQ.
AECTCV Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 070944) V.1- 1973-
AEPPAE Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. (Berlin, Ger.) V.110-253, 1925-66. For publisher information, see NSAPCC.
AFDOAQ Quarterly Bulletin--Association of Food and Drug Officials of the United States. (Denver, CO) V.3-38, 1939-74.
AJOGAH American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. (C.V. Mosby Co., 11830 Westline Industrial Dr., St. Louis, MO 63146) V.1- 1920-
AJPEEK American Journal of Perinatology. (Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. 381 Park Ave. S., New York, NY 10157-0208) V.1- 1983-
ANANAU Anatomischer Anzeiger. (VEB Gustav Fischer Verlag, Postfach 176, Jena DDR-6900, Ger. Dem. Rep.) V.1- 1886-
ANREAK Anatomical Record. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1906/08-
ARDSBL American Review of Respiratory Disease. (American Lung Assoc., 1740 Broadway, New York, NY 10019) V.80- 1959-
ARZNAD Arzneimittel-Forschung. Drug Research. (Editio Cantor Verlag, Postfach 1255, W-7960 Aulendorf, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.1- 1951-
BIRSB5 Biology of Reproduction, Supplement. (Champaign, IL) No.1-4, 1969-71(?). Discontinued. For publisher information, see BIREBV.
BJOGAS British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. (Blackwell Scientific Pub. Ltd., POB 88, Oxford, UK) V.82- 1975-
BJPCBM British Journal of Pharmacology. (Macmillan Press Ltd., Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hants. RG21 2XS, UK) V.34- 1968-
BNEOBV Biology of the Neonate. (S. Karger Pub., Inc., 79 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10003) V.15- 1970-
BPHAEL Behavioural Pharmacology. (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 351 W. Camden St., Baltimore, MD 21201) V.1- 1989-
BRBUDU Brain Research Bulletin. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1976-
BRREAP Brain Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1966-
CALEDQ Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland). (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1975-
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CTOXAO Clinical Toxicology. (New York, NY) V.1-18, 1968-81. For publisher information, see JTCTDW.
DBRRDB Developmental Brain Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1981-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
EJPHAZ European Journal of Pharmacology. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1967-
EKFAE9 Eksperimental'naya i Klinicheskaya Farmakologiya. Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology. (Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, ul. B. Yakimanka, 39, 117049 Moscow, Russia) V.55- 1992-
EMMUEG Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 1987-
ENDKAC Endokrinologie. (Leipzig, Ger. Dem. Rep.) V.1-80, 1928-82. For publisher information, see EXCEDS.
EPXXDW European Patent Application. (U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, Foreign Patents, Washington, DC 20231)
EURNE* European Neuropsychopharmacology (Elsevier Science, P.O.Box 7247-7682,Philadelphia,PA 19170 -7682,USA OR Elsevier Science B.V.,P.O.Box 1270,1000 BG Amsterdam,The Netherlands) V.1- Nov.1990-
EXMPA6 Experimental and Molecular Pathology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1962-
FATOAO Farmakologiya i Toksikologiya (Moscow). For English translation, see PHTXA6 and RPTOAN. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.2- 1939-
FCTOD7 Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 1982-
FDWU** "Ueber die Wirkung Verschiedener Gifte Auf Vogel, Dissertation," Forchheimer, L., Pharmakologischen Institut der Universitat Wurzburg, Fed. Rep. Ger., 1931
FEREAC Federal Register. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) V.1- 1936-
FMCHA2 Farm Chemicals Handbook. (Meister Pub., 37841 Euclid Ave., Willoughy, OH 44094)
FNSCA6 Forensic Science. (Lausanne, Switzerland) V.1-11, 1972-78. For pub lisher information, see FSINDR.
HBPTO* Handbook of pesticide toxicology. Robert Krieger ed, Academic press, 2001
HYSAAV Hygiene and Sanitation (USSR). English translation of GISAAA. (Springfield, VA) 1964-71. Discontinued.
IJEBA6 Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. (Publications & Information Directorate, CSIR, Hillside Rd., New Delhi 110 012, India) V.1- 1963-
IRLCDZ IRCS Medical Science: Library Compendium. (Lancaster, UK) V.3-11, 1975-83. For publisher information, see IMSCE2.
JAPYAA Journal of Applied Physiology. (Bethesda, MD) V.1-41, 1948-76.
JMCMAR Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. (American Chemical Soc., Distribution Office Dept. 223, POB POB 57136, West End Stn., Washington, DC 20037) V.6- 1963-
JOETD7 Journal of Ethnopharmacology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1979-
JPETAB Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. (Williams & Wilkins Co., 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1909/10-
JTCTDW Journal of Toxicology, Clinical Toxicology. (Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.19- 1982-
KAIZAN Kaibogaku Zasshi. Journal of Anatomy. (Nippon Kaibo Gakkai, c/o Tokyo Daigaku Igakubu, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan) V.1- 1928-
LIFSAK Life Sciences. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1-8, 1962-69; V.14- 1974-
MFEPDX Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology. (J.R. Prous, S.A., Apartado de Correos 540, 08080 Barcelona, Spain) V.1- 1979-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
NEROEW Neuropsychopharmacology. (Elsevier Science, 655 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10010) V.1- 1987-
NETEEC Neurotoxicology and Teratology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.9- 1987-
NETOD7 Neurobehavioral Toxicology. (Fayetteville, NY) V.1-2, 1979-80. For publisher information, see NTOTDY.
NIIRDN Drugs in Japan (Ethical Drugs). (Yakugyo Jiho Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan)
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NNAPBA Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Archiv fuer Pharmakologie. (Berlin, Ger.) V.264-271, 1969-71. For publisher information, see NSAPCC.
NTOTDY Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology. (Fayetteville, NY) V.3-8, 1981-86. For publisher information, see NETEEC.
NYKZAU Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Pharmacology. (Nippon Yakuri Gakkai, c/o Kyoto Daigaku Igakubu Yakurigaku Kyoshitsu, Konoe-cho, Yoshida, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606, Japan) V.40- 1944-
PANCR* Pancreas. (Hagerstown, MD : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins) V5- 1995-
PHMREP Pharmacological Research. (Academic Press, 24-28 Oval Rd. London NW1 7DX, UK) V.21- 1989-
PHZOA9 Physiological Zoology. (Univ. of Chicago Press, Journals Div., POB 37005, Chicago, IL 60637) V.1- 1928-
PSCHDL Psychopharmacology (Berlin). (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) V.47- 1976-
PSEBAA Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1903/04-
RBREV* Status of Pesticides in Registration, Reregistration, and Special Review (Rainbow Report), Special Review and Reregistration Division Office of Pesticide Programs U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 401 M. Street, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20460, Spring 1998
RSTUDV Rivista di Scienza e Technologia degli Alimenti e di Nutrizione Umana. Review of Science and Technology of Food and Human Nutrition. (Bologna, Italy) V.5-6, 1975-76. Discontinued.
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SEIJBO Senten Ijo. Congenital Anomalies. (Nippon Senten Ijo Gakkai, c/o Kinki Daigaku Igakubu Kaibagaku Kyoshitsu, 380 Nishiyama, Sayama-cho, Mirami-Kawachi-gun, Osaka-fu, Japan) V.1-26, 1960-86. For publisher information, see CGANE7.
TJADAB Teratology, The International Journal of Abnormal Development. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1968-
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TOSCF2 Toxicological Sciences (Oxford University Press, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887 ) V. 41, Jan. 1998-
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TXCYAC Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973-
WRPCA2 World Review of Pest Control. (London, UK) V.1-10, 1962-71. Discontinued.

Used as an agricultural chemical and pesticide, pharmaceutical, veterinary drug

RTECS Compound Description:
   Agricultural Chemical
   Drug
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data
   Natural Product

ALT CAS #: 6912-85-2
ALT CAS #: 16760-37-5
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