The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances

Sodium cyanide

RTECS #: VZ7525000

CAS #: 143-33-9


UPDATE: May 2005 MW: 49.01 MF: CNNa


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. MUTATION DATA:
  3. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  4. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  5. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  6. REVIEWS:
  7. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  8. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  9. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  10. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. Cianuro di sodio (Italian)
  2. Cyanide of sodium
  3. Cyanobrik
  4. Hydrocyanic acid, sodium salt
  5. Cyanogran
  6. Cyanure de sodium (French)
  1. Cymag
  2. Kyanid sodny (Czech)
  3. Prussiate of soda
  4. RCRA waste number P106
  5. Sodium cyanide (ACGIH)


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction inhalation
Drosophila melanogaster
200 ppb MUREAV 261,85,1991


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
implant
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 5,999 mg/kg (6-9 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system
TXAPA9 64,456,1982
implant
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 5,928 mg/kg (6-9 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system
TXAPA9 64,456,1982
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4,177 mg/kg (13 week male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct NTPTR* NIH-94-3386
oral
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,148 mg/kg (13 week male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
NTPTR* NIH-94-3386
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 6 mg/kg (10 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus TXAPA9 163,149,2000


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic concentration: 40 mg/m3/25 minute Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Behavioral: Irritability

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands
VCVN1* -,342,1988
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic concentration: 100 mg/m3/3 minute Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Behavioral: Irritability

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands
VCVN1* -,342,1988
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic concentration: 50 mg/m3/20 minute Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Behavioral: Tetany
VCVN1* -,342,1988
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic concentration: 150 mg/m3/26 minute Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Behavioral: Tetany
VCVN1* -,342,1988
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic concentration: 200 mg/m3/16 minute Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Behavioral: Tetany
VCVN1* -,342,1988
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published lethal concentration: 150 mg/m3/62 minute N/R VCVN1* -,342,1988
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published lethal concentration: 400 mg/m3/10 minute N/R VCVN1* -,342,1988
intramuscular
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,666 g/kg N/R JACTDZ 1(3),120,1982
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4,900 g/kg N/R NTIS** OTS0528336
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4,300 g/kg N/R GISAAA 43(12),90,1978
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kg Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Catecholamine levels in CNS

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine in striatum
FCTOD7 42,359,2004
intravenous
cat
lowest published lethal dose: 2 mg/kg N/R VCVN1* -,342,1988
intravenous
cat
lowest published lethal dose: 0.5 mg/kg Brain and Coverings: Changes in surface EEG

Cardiac: EKG changes not diagnostic of above
FATOAO 44,210,1981
intravenous
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 1,300 g/kg N/R FEPRA7 6,349,1947
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression FATOAO 49,107,1986
ocular
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5,048 g/kg N/R JACTDZ 1(3),120,1982
oral
wild bird
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4 mg/kg Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Ataxia

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
JWIDAW 22,538,1986
oral
child
lowest published lethal dose: 100 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Other changes FSINDR 38,173,1988
oral
chicken
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 21 mg/kg Eye: Other eye effects

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands
JWIDAW 22,538,1986
oral
duck
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2,500 g/kg N/R NTIS** OTS0530251
oral
domestic animal
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4 mg/kg N/R TXAPA9 45,359,1978
oral
human
lowest published lethal dose: 2,800 g/kg N/R NTIS** OTS0528336
oral
human
lowest published lethal dose: 2,857 g/kg N/R 34ZIAG -,191,1969
oral
mammal (species unspecified)
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 8 mg/kg N/R BECTA6 23,211,1979
oral
man
lowest published lethal dose: 6,557 g/kg Behavioral: Fluid intake

Gastrointestinal: Gastritis
APTOA6 1,18,1945
oral
man
lowest published toxic dose: 714 g/kg Behavioral: Hallucinations, distorted perceptions

Behavioral: Muscle weakness
APTOA6 20,291,1963
oral
quail
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 8,500 g/kg Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Ataxia

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
JWIDAW 22,538,1986
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 6,440 g/kg N/R 28ZPAK -,13,1972
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4.7 mg/kg Behavioral: Tetany

Behavioral: Ataxia

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory obstruction
VCVN1* -,342,1988
oral
woman
lowest published lethal dose: 40 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Other changes FSINDR 38,173,1988
parenteral
frog
lowest published lethal dose: 60 mg/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Spastic paralysis with/without sensory change

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)
AEPPAE 166,437,1932
subcutaneous
dog
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5,360 g/kg N/R JAMAAP 149,113,1952
subcutaneous
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5,800 g/kg N/R MELAAD 46,221,1955
subcutaneous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3,600 g/kg N/R AJPHAP 179,60,1954
subcutaneous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 2,200 g/kg N/R JAMAAP 100,1920,1933
skin
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 10,400 g/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Tremor

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
NTIS** OTS0536153
skin
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 300 mg/kg N/R VCVN1* -,343,1988
unreported route
human
lowest published lethal dose: 1.43 mg/kg N/R VCVN1* -,342,1988
unreported route
man
lowest published lethal dose: 2,206 g/kg N/R 85DCAI 2,73,1970
unreported route
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 10 mg/kg N/R IGAYAY 112,861,1980


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 60 mg/kg/30 day- intermittent Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Catecholamine levels in CNS

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine at other sites
FCTOD7 38,51,2000
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg/10 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Spinal Cord: Other degenerative changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Metabolic acidosis
VCVN1* -,343,1988
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 837 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Endocrine: Androgenic NTPTR* NIH-94-3386
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 336 mg/kg/4 week- continuous Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in both tubules and glomeruli

Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse
FCTOD7 41,463,2003
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 12 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase
VCVN1* -,343,1988
skin
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 5.1 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Skin: After topical application: Cutaneous sensitization (experimental) VDVEAV (7),76,1978
skin
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 5.1 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Immunological Including Allergic: Hypersensitivity delayed (multiple organ involvement) VDVEAV (7),76,1978


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value ceiling concentration 5 mg/m3 (skin) DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 539,77,2003


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATION FEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDES: RED Completed RBREV* -,257,1998
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 5 mg(CN)/m3 CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 5 mg(CN)/m3 CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 5 mg(CN)/m3 CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 5 mg(CN)/m3 CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 5 mg/m3, Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRIA MAK 5 mg(CN)/m3, Skin, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 5 mg/m3, Skin, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 5 mg(CN)/m3, Skin, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - GERMANY MAK 5 mg(CN)/m3, Skin, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND time-weighted average 0.3 mg(CN)/m3, CEILING 10 mg(CN)/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 5 mg/m3, KZG- week 10 mg/m3, Skin, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 5 mg(CN)/m3, Skin, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN, KOREA American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

ceiling concentration 5 mg/m3 (skin)
Occupational Exposure Limit IN NEW ZEALAND, SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
ceiling concentration 5 mg/m3 (skin)


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO CYANIDE-air ceiling concentration 4.7 ppm(CN)/10 minute NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 68950;
Number of Industries 68;
Total Number of Facilities 3,285;
Number of Occupations 41;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 27,329
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 68950;
Number of Industries 74;
Total Number of Facilities 4,423;
Number of Occupations 63;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 66,484;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 15,327


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/98/101207/AS)
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used in treatment of rabbit and rat burrows and holes and termite nests
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA Section 8(e) Risk Notification, 8EHQ-0693-9229
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NTP Toxicity studies, RPT# TOX-37, October 2000


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

28ZPAK "Sbornik Vysledku Toxixologickeho Vysetreni Latek A Pripravku," Marhold, J.V., Institut Pro Vychovu Vedoucicn Pracovniku Chemickeho Prumyclu Praha, Czechoslovakia, 1972
34ZIAG "Toxicology of Drugs and Chemicals," Deichmann, W.B., New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1969
85DCAI "Poisoning; Toxicology, Symptoms, Treatments," 2nd ed., Arena, J.M., Springfield, IL, C.C. Thomas, 1970
AEPPAE Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. (Berlin, Ger.) V.110-253, 1925-66. For publisher information, see NSAPCC.
AJPHAP American Journal of Physiology. (American Physiological Soc., 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814) V.1- 1898-
APTOA6 Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica. (Copenhagen, Denmark) V.1-59, 1945-86. For publisher information, see PHTOEH
BECTA6 Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) V.1- 1966-
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
FATOAO Farmakologiya i Toksikologiya (Moscow). For English translation, see PHTXA6 and RPTOAN. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.2- 1939-
FCTOD7 Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 1982-
FEPRA7 Federation Proceedings, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. (Bethesda, MD) V.1-46, 1942-87.
FEREAC Federal Register. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) V.1- 1936-
FSINDR Forensic Science International. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.12- 1978-
GISAAA Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936-
IGAYAY Igaku No Ayumi. Progress in Medicine. (Ishiyaku Shuppan K.K., 1-7-10, Honkomagom, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan) V.1- 1946-
JACTDZ Journal of the American College of Toxicology. (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., 1651 Third Ave., New York, NY 10128) V.1-12, 1982-1993. Discontinued.
JAMAAP JAMA, Journal of the American Medical Association. (AMA, 535 N. Dearborn St., Chicago, IL 60610) V.1- 1883-
JWIDAW Journal of Wildlife Diseases. (Wildlife Disease Assoc., POB 886, Ames, IA 50010) V.6- 1970-
MELAAD Medicina del Lavoro. Industrial Medicine. (Via S. Barnaba, 8, 20122 Milan, Italy) V.16- 1925-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information.
NTPTR* National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series. (Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) No.206-
RBREV* Status of Pesticides in Registration, Reregistration, and Special Review (Rainbow Report), Special Review and Reregistration Division Office of Pesticide Programs U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 401 M. Street, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20460, Spring 1998
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
VCVN1* "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva. Neorganicheskie soedinenia elementov I-IV groopp" (Hazardous substances. Inornanic substances containing I-IV group elements), Filov V.A., Chimia, 1988.
VDVEAV Vestnik Dermatologii i Venerologii. Journal of Dermatology and Venereology. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) No.1- 1932-

Used in treatment of rabbit and rat burrows and holes and termite nests

RTECS Compound Description:
   Agricultural Chemical
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data

ALT CAS #: 13998-03-3
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