The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances

Styrene

RTECS #: WL3675000

CAS #: 100-42-5


UPDATE: May 2005 MW: 104.16 MF: C8H8


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  5. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  6. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  7. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  8. REVIEWS:
  9. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  10. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  11. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  12. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. Benzene, vinyl -
  2. Cinnamene
  3. Ethenylbenzene
  4. Ethylene, phenyl -
  5. NCI - C02200
  6. Phenethylene
  7. Phenylethene
  8. Phenylethylene (OSHA)
  9. Stirolo (Italian)
  10. Styreen (Dutch)
  11. Styren (Czech)
  1. Styrene (OSHA)
  2. Styrene, monomer
  3. Styrene, monomer (ACGIH)
  4. Styrol (German)
  5. Styrole
  6. Styrolene
  7. Vinyl benzene (OSHA)
  8. Vinylbenzen (Czech)
  9. Vinylbenzene
  10. Vinylbenzol


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
eye
rabbit
100 mg severe AJOPAA 29,1363,1946
eye
rabbit
100 mg/24 hour moderate 85JCAE -,32,1986
skin
human
500 mg rinse moderate INMEAF 17,199,1948
skin
rabbit
500 mg open irritation test mild UCDS** 12/13/1963
skin
rabbit
1,00% moderate AMIHAB 14,387,1956


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
body fluid assay human
lymphocyte
300 mg/kg EMMUEG 17,27,1991
cytogenetic analysis hamster lung 100 mg/L ATSUDG 4,41,1980
cytogenetic analysis inhalation
human
7,500 ppb/8 hour/5 day- intermittent HEREAY 100,87,1984
cytogenetic analysis human lymphocyte 300 ppm/72 hour MUREAV 58,277,1978
cytogenetic analysis multiple
human
20 ppm/8 year- intermittent MUREAV 537,131,2003
cytogenetic analysis oral
mouse
2.4 g/kg EMMUEG 39,69,2002
cytogenetic analysis inhalation
rat
300 ppm/8 week- intermittent TOLED5 1,315,1978
DNA adduct inhalation
mouse
1,500 mg/m3/21 day- intermittent CBINA8 137,213,2001
DNA damage human leukocyte 5 mmol/L/30 minute TXCYAC 186,131,2003
DNA damage intraperitoneal
mouse
10 mmol/kg CALEDQ 21,9,1983
DNA damage inhalation
mouse
1,500 mg/m3/7 day- intermittent CBINA8 137,213,2001
DNA damage rat liver 3 mmol/L SinJF# 26OCT1982
DNA inhibition human HeLa cell 28 mmol/L MUREAV 93,447,1982
unscheduled DNA synthesis human lymphocyte 100 mol/L CRNGDP 3,681,1982
unscheduled DNA synthesis rat liver 3,800 mol/L MUREAV 221,263,1989
host-mediated assay mouse
Saccharomyes cerevisiae
1 gm/kg MUREAV 40,317,1976
host-mediated assay mouse
Schizosaccharomyces pombe
1 gm/kg MUREAV 40,317,1976
mutation in microorganisms hamster lung 240 mol/plate (+enzymatic activation step) CBINA8 39,57,1982
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 1 mol/plate (-enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 56,147,1977
mutation in microorganisms Saccharomyes cerevisiae 1 mmol/L (-enzymatic activation step) BSIBAC 59,233,1983
micronucleus test intraperitoneal
mouse
250 mg/kg TOLED5 8,247,1981
micronucleus test inhalation
mouse
1,500 mg/m3/7 day- intermittent CBINA8 137,213,2001
gene conversion and mitotic recombination Saccharomyes cerevisiae 1 mmol/L BSIBAC 59,233,1983
morphological transform rat embryo 145 g/plate JJATDK 1,190,1981
sister chromatid exchange inhalation
human
1,204 mg/m3/5 year- intermittent MUREAV 73,387,1980
sister chromatid exchange human lymphocyte 10 mol/L EMMUEG 22,85,1993
sister chromatid exchange intraperitoneal
mouse
450 mg/kg MUREAV 271,49,1992
sister chromatid exchange inhalation
mouse
125 ppm/4 day- intermittent APTOD9 19,A34,1980
sister chromatid exchange intraperitoneal
rat
750 mg/kg MUREAV 271,49,1992
specific locus test oral
mouse
2.4 g/kg EMMUEG 39,69,2002
sperm morphology intraperitoneal
mouse
3,500 mg/kg/7 week- intermittent MUREAV 271,49,1992
sperm morphology intraperitoneal
rat
40 gm/kg/8 week- intermittent MUREAV 271,49,1992


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
hamster
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,000 ppm/6 hour (6-18 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants) APTOA6 47,127,1980
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 500 ppm/6 hour (6-16 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants) APTOA6 47,127,1980
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 293 ppm/6 hour (7-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral NETEEC 17,121,1995
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,500 g/m3/24 hour (1-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
GISAAA 39(11),65,1974
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 5 mg/m3/24 hour (1-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Stillbirth

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4)
GISAAA 39(11),65,1974
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,500 g/m3/24 hour (1-7 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)
GISAAA 39(11),65,1974
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 50 ppm/6 hour (7-12 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain) NEZAAQ 47,227,1992
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 8,600 mg/kg (1-22 day pregnant/21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral NTOTDY 7,23,1985
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5,575 mg/kg (multigenerations) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4)
FAATDF 5,855,1985
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4 gm/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) JEBIDP 11,73,1990
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 11,470 mg/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system TJADAB 42,651,1990


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 160 ppm/6 hour/2 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
NTIS** OTS0558579-2
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 160 ppm/6 hour/98 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
JAPTO* 21,185,2001
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 20 ppm/6 hour/98 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
JAPTO* 21,185,2001
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 40 ppm/6 hour/104 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
JAPTO* 21,185,2001
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/4 hour/5 day/1 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors

Blood: Leukemia
ANYAA9 534,203,1988
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,520 mg/kg/43 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
KHZDAN 25,464,1982


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published lethal concentration: 12 gm/m3/14 hour Eye: Lacrimation

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Antipsychotic
JIHTAB 24,295,1942
inhalation
human
lowest published lethal concentration: 10,000 ppm/30 minute N/R 29ZWAE -,77,1968
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 600 ppm Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Eye: Other eye effects
AMIHAB 14,387,1956
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 20 g/m3 Eye: Other eye effects GISAAA 26(8),11,1961
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 376 ppm/1 hour Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)
AEHLAU 16,656,1968
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/1 hour Eye: Conjunctiva irritation VCVGH* -,193,1990
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 376 ppm/25 minute Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests VCVGH* -,193,1990
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 376 ppm/50 minute Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Behavioral: Ataxia
VCVGH* -,193,1990
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 376 ppm/60 minute Behavioral: Headache VCVGH* -,193,1990
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 800 ppm/4 hour Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Ataxia
VCVGH* -,193,1990
inhalation
man
lowest published toxic concentration: 50 mg/m3/8 hour Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition TXAPA9 189,160,2003
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 300 ppm/6 minute Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression TOLED5 9,137,1981
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 21,000 mg/m3/2 hour N/R VCVGH* -,192,1990
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 9,500 mg/m3/4 hour N/R VCVGH* -,192,1990
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 40 ppm/6 hour Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
FCTOD7 42,1655,2004
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 11,800 mg/m3/4 hour N/R VCVGH* -,192,1990
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 5,460 mg/m3/1 hour Eye: Lacrimation

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands
VCVGH* -,192,1990
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 40,000 mg/m3/2 hour Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
VCVGH* -,192,1990
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 500 ppm/6 hour Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands
FCTOD7 42,1655,2004
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published lethal concentration: 4,000 ppm/4 hour N/R UCDS** 12/13/1963
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 40,000 mg/m3/2 hour Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
VCVGH* -,192,1990
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 660 mg/kg N/R ARZNAD 19,617,1969
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 898 mg/kg N/R ENVRAL 40,411,1986
intravenous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 90 mg/kg N/R ARZNAD 19,617,1969
oral
mammal (species unspecified)
lethal dose (50 percent kill): >1,500 mg/kg N/R GISAAA 39(4),86,1974
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 316 mg/kg N/R NCILB* NCI-E-C-72-3252,1973
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2,650 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Liver: Other changes
SRTCAC 36(1-4),10,1989
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5,000 mg/kg N/R VCVGH* -,192,1990
oral
rat
lethal dose (10 percent kill): 5 mL/kg N/R VCVGH* -,192,1990


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published toxic concentration: 6 gm/m3/8 hour/26 week- intermittent Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JIHTAB 24,295,1942
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 500 ppm/90 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TOXID9 12,397,1992
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 250 ppm/6 hour/14 day- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
FAATDF 20,325,1993
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 250 ppm/6 hour/5 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
FAATDF 20,325,1993
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 500 ppm/6 hour/22 day- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
TOSCF2 48,123,1999
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 40 ppm/6 hour/3 day- intermittent Olfaction: Other olfaction effects CBINA8 137,185,2001
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 80 ppm/6 hour/104 week- intermittent Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JAPTO* 21,185,2001
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 160 ppm/6 hour/98 week- intermittent Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JAPTO* 21,185,2001
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 20 ppm/6 hour/52 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes JAPTO* 21,185,2001
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 40 ppm/6 hour/78 week- intermittent Olfaction: Change in olfactory nerve JAPTO* 21,185,2001
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,500 mg/m3/3 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain ARTODN 77,56,2003
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,500 mg/m3/6 day- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field ARTODN 77,56,2003
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 40 ppm/6 hour/5 day- intermittent Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases FCTOD7 42,1655,2004
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 160 ppm/6 hour/5 day- intermittent Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
FCTOD7 42,1655,2004
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 40 ppm/6 hour/4 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Blood: Other changes
FCTOD7 42,1655,2004
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 160 ppm/6 hour/4 week- intermittent Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
FCTOD7 42,1655,2004
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 50 mg/m3/24 hour/70 day- continuous Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase
GISAAA 26(8),11,1961
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,000 ppm/8 hour/32 week- intermittent Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Sensory change involving peripheral nerve

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
ENVRAL 62,148,1993
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 6 gm/m3/8 hour/26 week- intermittent Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Eye: Other eye effects
JIHTAB 24,295,1942
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,500 ppm/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Behavioral: Fluid intake
FAATDF 35,152,1997
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 300 ppm/6 hour/2 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Other changes
JTEHD6 52,63,1997
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,000 ppm/6 hour/20 day- intermittent Ear: Change in cochlear structure or function

Ear: Tumors
NETEEC 23,71,2001
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,000 mg/m3/4 hour/20 day- intermittent Endocrine: Adrenal cortex hyperplasia VCVGH* -,195,1990
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,000 mg/m3/4 hour/6 week- intermittent Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport VCVGH* -,195,1990
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,000 ppm/6 hour/5 day- intermittent Ear: Change in acuity

Ear: Change in cochlear structure or function
NETEEC 25,39,2003
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 160 ppm/6 hour/4 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain FCTOD7 42,1655,2004
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 500 ppm/6 hour/2 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain FCTOD7 42,1655,2004
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 500 ppm/6 hour/3 day- intermittent Eye: Ptosis

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)
FCTOD7 42,1655,2004
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 50 mg/m3/4 hour/17 week- intermittent Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
GISAAA 35(8),112,1970
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,000 mg/m3/4 hour/20 day- intermittent Endocrine: Adrenal cortex hyperplasia VCVGH* -,195,1990
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 8,400 mg/kg/7 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
JTSCDR 14,1,1989
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 10 gm/kg/10 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition TOLED5 45,271,1989
oral
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 337 gm/kg/76 week- continuous Liver: Other changes

Blood: Other changes

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
NTIS** OTS0546563
oral
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 3,200 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of exocrine pancreas

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
IJEBA6 32,68,1994
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of exocrine pancreas

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
IJEBA6 32,68,1994
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 17,200 mg/kg/14 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
JJATDK 2,219,1982
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,200 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of exocrine pancreas

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
IJEBA6 32,68,1994
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 23,190 mg/kg/15 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Vascular: Regional or general arteriolar constriction

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Monoamine oxidase
TOLED5 7,47,1980
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 40 gm/kg/2 year- continuous Brain and Coverings: Changes in brain weight

Behavioral: Fluid intake

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FAATDF 5,855,1985
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,150 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
APTOA6 52,47,1983
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 12,000 mg/kg/60 day- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
IJEBA6 30,399,1992
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 20,400 mg/kg/60 day- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
ARTODN 63,43,1989
skin
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,500 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
RCOCB8 19,109,1978


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 20 ppm DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2003
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Not Classifiable as a Human Carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2003
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value short term exposure limit 40 ppm DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2003
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Limited Evidence IMEMDT 19,231,1979
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Limited Evidence IMEMDT 60,233,1994
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Limited Evidence IMEMDT 82,437,2002
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 19,231,1979
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 60,233,1994
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Limited Evidence IMEMDT 82,437,2002
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 2B IMEMDT 60,233,1994
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 2B IMEMDT 82,437,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 566,21,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
EVHPAZ 11,163,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CMTVAS 10(3),49,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CBINA8 22,117,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
IGAYAY 106,105,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 134,3,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 138,1,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 543,201,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 138,75,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,227,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,151,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,347,2004


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 100 ppm (420 mg/m3) DTLVS* 3,235,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 100 ppm;
ceiling concentration 200;
peak concentration 600/5 minute/3 hour
CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 100 ppm (420 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 100 ppm (420 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 100 ppm (420 mg/m3) CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 50 ppm (215 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 100 ppm, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRIA MAK 20 ppm (85 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 25 ppm (105 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 20 ppm (85 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 100 ppm (420 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 50 ppm (215 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - GERMANY MAK 20 ppm (85 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY short term exposure limit 50 mg/m3, Carcinogen, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - JAPAN Occupational Exposure Limit 50 ppm (210 mg/m3), 2B Carcinogen, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 107 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 25 ppm (105 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 100 ppm (420 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 50 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 200 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN NGV 20 ppm (90 mg/m3), KTV 50 ppm (200 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 50 ppm (215 mg/m3), KZG- week 100 ppm (430 mg/m3),JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THAILAND time-weighted average 100 ppm, short term exposure limit 200 ppm, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - TURKEY time-weighted average 100 ppm (420 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 100 ppm (430 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 250 ppm, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN, KOREA American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

short term exposure limit 40 ppm
Occupational Exposure Limit IN NEW ZEALAND, SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
short term exposure limit 40 ppm


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO STYRENE-air 10 hour time-weighted average 50 ppm;
short term exposure limit 100 ppm
NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 70130;
Number of Industries 137;
Total Number of Facilities 16,394;
Number of Occupations 117;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 292,018
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 70130;
Number of Industries 154;
Total Number of Facilities 24,702;
Number of Occupations 115;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 333,212;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 86,902


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/93/110849/AS)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: In vivo cytogenetics-human lymphocyte; Host-mediated assay
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: In vitro human lymphocyte micronucleus
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: D melanogaster Sex-linked lethal
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: S cerevisiae gene conversion
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive/limited: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Cell transform.-SA7/SHE; In vitro UDS-human fibroblast
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: V79 cell culture-gene mutation
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: S pombe-forward mutation
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA 8(a) PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT INFORMATION, FINAL RULE FEREAC 47,26992,82
Used in the production of plastics and polystyrene resins
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA Section 8(e) Risk Notification, 8EHQ-0393-8756;8EHQ-0294-8756
EPA TSCA Section 8(e) Risk Notification, 8EHQ-0892-8996
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Hydrocarbons, aromatic, 1501
NCI Carcinogenesis Bioassay (gavage);inadequate studies:mouse,rat NCITR* NCI-TR-185,1979
NCI Carcinogenesis Bioassay (gavage);inadequate studies:mouse,rat NCITR* NCI-TR-170,1979
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #89


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

29ZWAE "Practical Toxicology of Plastics," Lefaux, R., Cleveland, OH, Chemical Rubber Co., 1968
85JCAE "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J., Prague, Czechoslovakia, Avicenum, 1986
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APTOD9 Abstracts of Papers, Society of Toxicology. Annual Meetings. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802)
ARTODN Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 1974-
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ATSUDG Archives of Toxicology, Supplement. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) No.1- 1978-
BSIBAC Bolletino della Societe Italiana di Biologia Sperimentale. (Casa Editrice Idelson, Via A. de Gasperi, 55, 80133 Naples, Italy) V.2- 1927-
CALEDQ Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland). (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1975-
CBINA8 Chemico-Biological Interactions. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1969-
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CMTVAS Cahiers de Medecine du Travail. (Association Professionnelle Belge des Medecine du Travail, rue du Bultia, 6280 Gerpinnes, Belgium) V.1- 1963-
CRNGDP Carcinogenesis (London). (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1980-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
EMMUEG Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 1987-
ENVRAL Environmental Research. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1967-
EVHPAZ EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) No.1- 1972-
FAATDF Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1-40, 1981-97. For publisher information, see TOSCF2
FCTOD7 Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 1982-
FEREAC Federal Register. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) V.1- 1936-
GISAAA Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936-
HEREAY Hereditas (Lund, Sweden). (Gjoerloffsgatan 121, S-261 34 Landskrona, Sweden) V.1- 1947-
IGAYAY Igaku No Ayumi. Progress in Medicine. (Ishiyaku Shuppan K.K., 1-7-10, Honkomagom, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan) V.1- 1946-
IJEBA6 Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. (Publications & Information Directorate, CSIR, Hillside Rd., New Delhi 110 012, India) V.1- 1963-
IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972-
INMEAF Industrial Medicine. (Chicago, IL) V.1-18, 1932-49. For publisher information, see IOHSA5.
JAPTO* Journal of Applied Toxicology (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Oldlands Way Bognor Regis West Sussex, PO22 9SA England) V.1- 1981-
JEBIDP Journal of Environmental Biology. (Academy of Environmental Biology, India, 657/5, Civil Lines (South), Muzaffarnagar, 251001, India) V.1- 1980-
JIHTAB Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. (Cambridge, MA) V.18-31, 1936-49. For publisher information, see AEHLAU.
JJATDK JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology. (John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Baffins Lane, Chichester, W. Sussex PO19 1UD, UK) V.1- 1981-
JTEHD6 Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. (Hemisphere Pub., 1025 Vermont Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 1975/76-
JTSCDR Journal of Toxicological Sciences. (Japanese Soc. of Toxicological Sciences, 4th Floor, Gakkai Center Bldg., 4-16, Yayoi 2-chome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan) V.1- 1976-
KHZDAN Khigiena i Zdraveopazvane. Hygiene and Sanitation. (Hemus, Blvd. Russki 6, Sofia, Bulgaria) V.9- 1966-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
NCILB* Progress Report for Contract No. NIH-NCI-E-C-72-3252, Submitted to the National Cancer Institute by Litton Bionetics, Inc. (Bethesda, MD)
NCITR* National Cancer Institute Carcinogenesis Technical Report Series. (Bethesda, MD) No.0-205. For publisher information, see NTPTR*.
NETEEC Neurotoxicology and Teratology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.9- 1987-
NEZAAQ Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene. (Nippon Eisei Gakkai, c/o Kyoto Daigaku Igakubu, Konoe-cho, Yoshida, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606, Japan) V.1- 1946-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information.
NTOTDY Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology. (Fayetteville, NY) V.3-8, 1981-86. For publisher information, see NETEEC.
RCOCB8 Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology. (PJD Pub. Ltd., P.O. Box 966, Westbury, NY 11590) V.1- 1970-
SRTCAC Science Reports of the Research Institutes, Tohoku University, Series C: Medicine. (Tohoku University, Research Institute for Tuberculosis and Cancer, 4-1 Seiryo-machi, Sendai, Japan) V.1- 1949-
SinJF# Personal Communication from J.F. Sina, Merck Institute for Therapeutic Research, West Point, PA 19486, Oct. 26, 1982
TJADAB Teratology, The International Journal of Abnormal Development. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1968-
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TOSCF2 Toxicological Sciences (Oxford University Press, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887 ) V. 41, Jan. 1998-
TOXID9 Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
TXCYAC Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973-
UCDS** Union Carbide Data Sheet. (Union Carbide Corp., 39 Old Ridgebury Rd., Danbury, CT 06817)
VCVGH* "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva, galogenproisvodnie uglevodorodov". (Hazardous substances: Galogenated hydrocarbons) Bandman A.L. et al., Chimia, 1990.

Used in the production of plastics and polystyrene resins

Top 50 chemical production: 8.94 billions lbs in 1992, 8.12 billions in 1991

NIOSH PROFILE (ARENES), SRI, 2/77

NIOSH PROFILE (RUBBER MANUFACTURING, SYNTHETIC), SRI, 2/77

NIOSH PROFILE (RUBBER MANUFACTURING, SYNTHETIC), FIRL, 4/78

RTECS Compound Description:
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data
   Primary Irritant

ALT CAS #: 79637-11-9
Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS